Organic All Important Naming Reactions:

 

Haloalkanes and Haloarenes

1) Finkelstein Reaction: This reaction used for the preparation of iodoalkanes from the corresponding chloroalkanes or bromoalkanes.

2) Fittig Reaction: In the reaction, haloarene is reacted with metallic sodium in the presence of anhydrous ether to form Diphenyl which is an aromatic hydrocarbon.                                                                                                                                                                                                                    

3) Friedel craft’s Alkylation: In this reaction, benzene is treated with an alkyl halide in the presence of anhydrous aluminium chloride acting as a catalyst. As a result, a hydrogen atom in the ring gets replaced either by an alkyl group.                                                                               

4) Friedel craft’s Acylation: In this reaction, benzene is treated with acyl chloride in the presence of anhydrous aluminium chloride acting as a catalyst.                                                                                                                                                                                                                             

5) Wurtz Reaction: Alkyl halides react with sodium in dry ether to give hydrocarbon containing double the no of carbon atoms present in halide.

6) Wurtz-Fitting Reaction: A mixture of an alkyl halide gives an alkyl arene when treated with sodium in presence of dry ether.                   

7) Hunsdiecker reaction: The silver(I) salts of carboxylic acids react with halogens to give unstable intermediates which readily decarboxylate thermally to yield alkyl halides. The reaction is believed to involve homolysis of the C-C bond and a radical chain mechanism.   

8) Simonini reaction: It is the synthesis of the aliphatic ester from two equivalents of silver carboxylate and one equivalent of iodine. This reaction is a further extension of the Hunsdiecker reaction. This reaction is considered a useful method for the preparation of esters.               

 

Organic All Important Naming Reactions

Alcohols, Phenols, and Ethers

9) Dow’s Process: It refers to the hydrolysis of chlorobenzene in the preparation of phenol. Chlorobenzene is treated with aqueous sodium hydroxide at 350 °C and 300 bar or molten sodium hydroxide at 350 °C to convert it to sodium phenoxide, which yields phenol upon acidification.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         

10) Reimer Tiemann Reaction: In this reaction, salicylaldehyde(2-Hydroxy benzaldehyde) is prepared on the reaction of phenols with chloroform while salicylic acid(2-Hydroxy benzoic acid) is formed when phenols are treated with carbon tetrachloride.                                         

11) Kolbe’s Reaction: In this reaction, salicylic acid is prepared. When phenol is treated with sodium hydroxide, sodium phenoxide is produced, which on treating with carbon dioxide, followed by acidification, undergoes electrophilic substitution to give a hydroxybenzene acid as the main product.                                                                                                                                                                                                                   

12) Williamson Synthesis: This reaction is used for the synthesis of symmetrical and unsymmetrical ethers.                                                     

 

Organic All Important Naming Reactions

Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acid

13) Rosenmund Reaction: This reaction is used for the preparation of aldehydes by the hydrogenation of acyl chlorides in presence of palladium supported over barium sulphate poisoned by sulphur.                                                                                                                                           

14) Stephen Reaction: This reaction is used for the preparation of aldehydes from nitriles by their reduction in presence of stannous chloride followed by hydrolysis.                                                                                                                                                                                                       

15) Etard Reaction: In this reaction, chromyl chloride oxidises methyl group to a chromium complex, which on hydrolysis gives corresponding benzaldehyde.                                                                                                                                                                                                           

16) Gatterman – Koch reaction: this reaction is used for the preparation of benzaldehyde from benzene or its derivatives.

17) Clemmenson’s Reduction: The carbonyl group of aldehydes and ketones is reduced to CH2 group on treatment with zinc- amalgam and concentrated hydrochloric acid.                                                                                                                                                                                               

18) Wolf Kishner Reduction: The carbonyl group of aldehydes and ketones is reduced to CH2 group on treatment with hydrazine followed by heating with sodium or potassium hydroxide in high boiling solvent such as ethylene glycol.                                                                   

19) Aldol Condensation: Aldehydes and ketones having at least one α-hydrogen undergo a reaction in the presence of dilute alkali as a catalyst to form βhydroxy aldehydes (aldol) or β-hydroxy ketones (ketol), respectively which readily undergoes condensation.                             

20) Cross Aldol Condensation: When aldol condensation is carried out between two different aldehydes and / or ketones, it is called cross aldol condensation.                                                                                                                                                                                                                   

21) Cannizzaro Reaction: Aldehydes which do not have an α-hydrogen atom, undergo self oxidation and reduction (disproportionation) reaction on treatment with concentrated alkali.                                                                                                                                                                           

22) Hell-Volhard-Zelinsky Reaction: Carboxylic acids having an α-hydrogen are halogenated at the α-position on treatment with chlorine or bromine in the presence of a small amount of red phosphorus to give α-halocarboxylic acids.                                                                   

 

Organic All Important Naming Reactions

Amines

23) Hoffmann Ammonolysis Reaction: This reaction yields a mixture of primary, secondary and tertiary amines and quaternary ammonium salt on the reaction of an alkyl halide with ammonia.                                                                                                                                           

24) Hoffmann Bromamide Degradation Reaction: This is a method for preparation of primary amines by treating an amide with bromine in an aqueous or ethanolic solution of sodium hydroxide.                                                                                                                                         

25) Gabriel Phthalimide Synthesis: The Gabriel synthesis is a chemical reaction that transforms primary alkyl halides into primary amines. Traditionally, the reaction uses potassium phthalimide.

26) Carbylamine reaction: Aliphatic and aromatic primary amines on heating with chloroform and ethanolic potassium hydroxide form isocyanides or carbylamine.                                                                                                                                                                                                               

27) Sandmeyer Reaction: In this reaction, chlorine or bromine or cyanide can also be introduced in the benzene ring by treating the diazonium salt solution with corresponding halogen acid in the presence of copper(I) ion.                                                                                             

28) Gatterman Reaction: In this reaction, chlorine or bromine or cyanide can also be introduced in the benzene ring by treating the diazonium salt solution with corresponding halogen acid in the presence of copper powder.                                                                                           

29) Diazotisation: Aromatic primary amines react with nitrous acid (prepared in situ from NaNO2 and mineral acid like HCl) at low temperature (273-278 K) to form diazoniumsalts.This conversion of primary aromatic amines into diazonium salts is known as diazotisation.

30) Coupling Reaction: The reaction of joining two aromatic rings through –N=N- is known as coupling reaction. Arenediazonium salts react with phenols or aromatic amines to form coloured azo compounds.                                                                                                                             

 

 

Organic All Important Naming Reactions

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